what resistances do you think are most commonly used?
220, 1k, 10k, 100k, 1M.
220 is your general LED current limiter for 5V (gives about 15-20mA)
1K for transistor bases and more severe current limiting.
10k for pullups and pulldowns on logic.
100k an 1M are less common but show up in longer timing circuits (Mohms * uF = s)
For modern digital circuits, values are VERY loose. Some people like 10k for pullups, others use 4.7k, and people who remember TTL like 2.2k. I got some good deals once on some 1% SMT resistors that I expect to use for most purposes: 1510 ohm (~1k), 9100 (~10k), 909k (~1M), etc...
If you're going to be doing analog circuitry like x0xb0x, you'd better uses exactly the values specified.