The output you got from `cat /proc/version` is nearly identical to what I just got from my RasPi running Wheezy (mine is the October 18 2012 build), so you should be good there.
The main problem seems to be an outdated link in the package update files. The critical line in the list of things going wrong is the one that says, "could not resolve 'archive.qmh-project.org'".
That's a DNS problem.
I just tried to resolve that address myself, and the machines I have show no address for 'archive.qmh-project.org', any other common machine name in that network, or the 'qmh-project.org' network itself.
It looks like the problem is an outdated link in the apt-get package description files. Try running:
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sudo apt-get install nodejs-legacy
now that you've done the update.
When you void a product warranty, you give up your right to sue the manufacturer if something goes wrong and accept full responsibility for whatever happens next. And then you truly own the product.